Is granulosa cell tumor of the ovary malignant?

Is granulosa cell tumor of the ovary malignant?

Ovarian granulosa cell tumor (GCT) is a malignant tumor originating from the sex-cord stromal cells of the ovary. It is an uncommon primary malignant tumor of the ovary and represents 2% to 5% of all ovarian cancers [1].

Can you die from granulosa cell tumor?

Granulosa cell tumours are classified as a malignant tumour with a long natural history and a tendency for late recurrence; although an indolent course, ∼80% of patients with recurrent GCT die because of the disease (Jamieson and Fuller, 2008).

What are the symptoms of granulosa cell tumour?

These may include increased linear growth, breast enlargement, clitoral enlargement, pubic hair development, increased vaginal secretions, and vaginal bleeding. In a few instances, patients present with virilizing symptoms as a result of testosterone production by the tumor cells.

Can a granulosa cell tumor be benign?

These can be non cancerous (benign) or cancerous (malignant). Granulosa cell tumours are the most common type. Treatment depends on several factors including your age, the type of tumour, and how advanced it is (the stage). Most women are diagnosed at an early stage and treatment usually works well.

Is granulosa cell tumor curable?

For patients with stage II-IV granulosa cell tumors, postoperative treatment is recommended,[5,6] but the survival benefit is still not known due to rarity of these tumors and lack of randomized trials.

Can granulosa cell tumors spread?

Background: Granulosa cell tumors (GCT) of the ovary generally have a good prognosis. Recurrences tend to be late and are usually abdominopelvic. Bone metastases are extremely rare. Case: A case of recurrent GCT with vertebral metastasis is presented.

Is granulosa cell tumor dangerous?

Stage I granulosa cell tumors of the ovary have been found to have a good prognosis with a 5 year survival rate ranging from 90-100% and a 10 year survival rate ranging from 84-95%.

What is the treatment for granulosa cell tumor?

Surgery is the primary treatment modality for granulosa cell tumors. Advanced stage and presence of residual disease were associated with inferior survival, but only prospective studies can ascertain their definite role.

How are granulosa cell tumors treated?

Primary treatment for patients with GCTs is surgical. Chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy are reserved for patients with advanced disease by surgical staging, and for patients with recurrent tumor.

Are inhibin B tumor markers?

Functional inhibin is secreted by all granulosa cell tumours of the ovary studied and can be used as a tumour marker to determine response to therapy and predict recurrence and is superior to oestradiol.

What if inhibin A is high?

Conclusions. High levels of maternal serum inhibin-A in the second trimester are significantly associated with abnormal placentation, which increases the risk of preeclampsia and FGR with a consequence of indicated preterm birth but not a risk of spontaneous preterm birth.

What does inhibin A ultrasensitive mean?

Inhibin A and inhibin B are hormones associated with reproduction and the development of oocytes (immature egg cells) in women’s ovaries. In women, these hormones are made mostly by the ovaries and by the placenta during pregnancy. Additionally, inhibin A and/or B may be produced by certain types of ovarian tumors.

What causes high inhibin levels?

During pregnancy, the placenta produces and secretes inhibin A, which then enters both the maternal and the fetal circulation (11,12,23). The placental inhibin A that enters maternal and the fetal circulation may cause an elevation in maternal serum and amniotic fluid inhibin A levels.

What does high inhibin B mean?

The amount of inhibin B measured in serum during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (day 3) directly reflects the number of follicles in the ovary. Therefore, the higher the inhibin B, the more ovarian follicles present.

What causes high inhibin B levels?

Elevated levels of inhibin A and/or inhibin B may be present in the blood of a woman with a rare type of ovarian tumor called a granulosa cell tumor (the most common type of sex-cord stromal tumor). Blood levels of these hormones may also be elevated in some women with mucinous epithelial tumors.