What are 4 environmental factors that can harm a fetus?

What are 4 environmental factors that can harm a fetus?

Environmental factors which have been implicated in adverse pregnancy outcome include smoking, video display terminals, anesthetic gases, antineoplastic drugs and exposure to lead, selenium and inorganic mercury.

What is the role of environment to prenatal development?

During prenatal development, environmental factors can significantly affect the development of the child. Most everything the mother ingests, including food, liquid, and even medication, travels through the placenta to the fetus; anything the mother is exposed to in the environment affects the fetus.

How can the environment affect pregnancy?

Environmental concerns when pregnant. Exposure to certain substances in the environment when you are pregnant may affect your pregnancy or the health of your baby. Toxic substances increase the risk for birth defects, low birth weight, prematurity and miscarriage.

What are environmental causes of birth defects?

Another environmental factor that can cause birth defects is uterine constraint….Fetal alcohol syndrome is a term used to describe the typical birth defects caused by the mother’s alcohol use:

  • Learning disabilities.
  • Developmental delay.
  • Irritability.
  • Hyperactivity.
  • Poor coordination.
  • Abnormalities of facial features.

What external factors can cause miscarriage?

What causes miscarriage?

  • Infection.
  • Exposure to environmental and workplace hazards such as high levels of radiation or toxic agents.
  • Hormonal irregularities.
  • Improper implantation of fertilized egg in the uterine lining.
  • Maternal age.
  • Uterine abnormalities.
  • Incompetent cervix.

What are the 3 major stages of prenatal development?

The process of prenatal development occurs in three main stages. The first two weeks after conception are known as the germinal stage, the third through the eighth week is known as the embryonic period, and the time from the ninth week until birth is known as the fetal period.

What are the most important influences on brain development before birth?

Good nutrition is important, because brain growth—like the growth of the rest of the fetus’ body—is influenced by the quality of a pregnant woman’s diet. Alcohol and cigarettes should be avoided, because these can impair the formation and wiring of brain cells.

What are the threats to the fetal environment?

Air pollution: A small study of 60 newborns in New York City found that expectant mothers’ exposure to combustion-related urban air pollution — emissions from cars, trucks, residential heating, power generation and tobacco smoking — may alter the structure of chromosomes in their fetuses.

What are environmental factors?

Environmental factors include temperature, food, pollutants, population density, sound, light, and parasites. The diversity of environmental stresses that have been shown to cause an increase in asymmetry is probably not exclusive; many other kinds of stress might provide similar effects.

What are the 4 main causes of birth defects?

What causes birth defects?

  • Genetic problems. One or more genes might have a change or mutation that results in them not working properly, such as in Fragile X syndrome.
  • Chromosomal problems.
  • Infections.
  • Exposure to medications, chemicals, or other agents during pregnancy.

What are the signs of abnormal baby?

What are the symptoms of birth defects in a child?

  • Abnormal shape of head, eyes, ears, mouth, or face.
  • Abnormal shape of hands, feet, or limbs.
  • Trouble feeding.
  • Slow growth.
  • Frequent infections.
  • Joint problems.
  • Spinal cord not fully enclosed (spina bifida)
  • Kidney problems.

What are some examples of environmental factors?

What are the six environmental factors?

There are many forces influencing how a business performs in the marketplace. When considering strategic business decisions, businesses analyze the six general environmental forces: political, economic, sociocultural, technology, environment and legal factors.

What week is miscarriage most common?

Most miscarriages happen in the first trimester before the 12th week of pregnancy. Miscarriage in the second trimester (between 13 and 19 weeks) happens in 1 to 5 in 100 (1 to 5 percent) pregnancies. As many as half of all pregnancies may end in miscarriage.

How do miscarriages look like?

Bleeding during miscarriage can appear brown and resemble coffee grounds. Or it can be pink to bright red. It can alternate between light and heavy or even stop temporarily before starting up again. If you miscarry before you’re eight weeks pregnant, it might look the same as a heavy period.

What is the most important stage of prenatal development?

In general, major defects of the body and internal organs are more likely to occur between 3 to 12 embryo / fetal weeks. This is the same as 5 to 14 gestational weeks (weeks since the first day of your last period). This is also referred to as the first trimester.

What is the longest stage of prenatal development?

fetal period
The longest period of prenatal development is the fetal period which begins at the 9th week after conception and lasts until birth.

At what week is a baby’s brain fully developed?

By the end of the seventh week of pregnancy — five weeks after conception — your baby’s brain and face are the focus of development.

What trimester is most important for brain development?

The brain begins to form early in the first trimester and continues until you give birth. During pregnancy, fetal brain development will be responsible for certain actions like breathing, kicking, and the heartbeat.

What is an example of an environmental influence during the prenatal stage?

A teratogen is any substance or agent in the environment that can have a detrimental effect on a developing fetus. Various teratogens include drugs, alcohol, tobacco, and other environmental agents.

What are some examples of environmental teratogens?


  • Preterm birth. One in ten US babies is born preterm and about 5% have low birth weight.
  • Structural congenital abnormality. Further information: Teratology and Congenital abnormality.
  • Neurodevelopmental disorder.
  • Alcohol.
  • Tobacco smoke.
  • Mercury.
  • Lead.
  • Dioxin.

What are the five environmental factors?

Temperature, oxygen, pH, water activity, pressure, radiation, lack of nutrients…these are the primary ones.

What environmental factors cause birth defects?

An environmental cause can include a drug, alcohol or a disease the mother has that can increase the chance for the baby to be born with a birth defect. An agent that can cause a birth defect is known as a teratogen.

Are there any environmental variables that affect prenatal development?

These include conditions such as Klinefelter’s syndrome (an extra X-chromosome) and Turner syndrome (a single X-chromosome). Environmental variables can also play a major role in prenatal development. Harmful environmental elements that can effects the fetus are known as teratogens. There a number of teratogens that can harm the fetus, including:

How does the environment affect the fetus during pregnancy?

Environmental variables can also play a major role in prenatal development. Harmful environmental elements that can effects the fetus are known as teratogens. There a number of teratogens that can harm the fetus, including:

When does the environment play a pivotal role in human development?

Mothers being stressed during pregnancy can result in elevated levels of the hormone cortisol being present in the amniotic fluid from as early as 17 weeks, these elevated cortisol levels have been matched to levels present in the mother’s blood.

Why are genetics so important in prenatal development?

Before birth, a fetus has of course had limited opportunity to be shaped by its environment, beyond factors such as the mother’s diet, substance use, and anxiety level. For this reason, genetics play a particularly important role in prenatal development.