What are the final stages of MSA?

What are the final stages of MSA?

The symptoms reflect the progressive loss of function and death of different types of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. Symptoms of autonomic failure that may be seen in MSA include fainting spells and problems with heart rate, erectile dysfunction, and bladder control.

Does MSA have stages?

In MSA there may be several stages — alpha-synuclein accumulates in the oligodendroglial cells, then there is failure of mitochondrial function as well as loss of trophic factor support. Then the oligodendroglia degenerate, followed by microglia and astroglial activation.

How do you rule out MSA?

MSA can only be conclusively diagnosed through examination of the brain and nervous system. A finding of glial cytoplasmic inclusions with an abnormal build up of alpha-synuclein in combination with degeneration of the specific areas of the brain indicates a definitive diagnosis of MSA.

Is MSA considered a terminal illness?

Because MSA is at this time a terminal disease with mean patient survival of 6 to 10 years after the onset of symptoms, patients and families should begin to make decisions regarding advanced directives, finances, hospice care, and the possibility of brain donation, if so desired.

How quickly does MSA progress?

How fast does MSA progress? Unfortunately, MSA progresses rapidly. It starts at an average age of 54 and within only 2 or 3 years produces important disability with regard to walking and balance. Most people with MSA are wheelchair-bound by the 4th year and eventually become bedbound because of general stiffness.

Is there pain with MSA?

Pain was reported in 47% of the MSA patients. It was classified as rheumatic in 64% of MSA patients reporting pain, sensory in 28%, dystonic in 21%, and levodopa-related in 16%, mostly related to off-period or diphasic dystonias. There was a mixed pain syndrome in 19% of these patients.

Is MSA always fatal?

People typically live about seven to 10 years after multiple system atrophy symptoms first appear. However, the survival rate with MSA varies widely. Occasionally, people can live for 15 years or longer with the disease. Death is often due to respiratory problems.

What are the first symptoms of MSA?

What are the symptoms of MSA? Most often, the first clinical symptom a patient will note will be lightheadedness, dizziness, and episodes of passing out, but the first symptoms in some patients may include difficulty initiating movement, body stiffness, urinary incontinence, and increased falls.