Why does uveal melanoma metastasize to the liver?

Why does uveal melanoma metastasize to the liver?

Primary tumor cells that express high levels of c-Met invade the vasculature of uveal melanoma where they gain access to the general circulation. Circulating melanoma cells respond to a chemotactic gradient of stroma-cell–derived factor through CXCR4 and home to the liver.

How does melanoma spread to the liver?

Melanoma usually spreads through the body’s blood vessels to the liver. Liver metastases are sometimes present when the original (primary) cancer is diagnosed, or it may occur months or years after the primary tumor is removed. After the lymph nodes, the liver is the most common site of metastatic spread.

How often does melanoma spread to the liver?

A study of 216 cutaneous melanoma cases found 58.3% had metatistic disease in the liver. More than 40% of newly diagnosed ocular melanomas have hepatic metastases present at initial diagnosis, and 95% of all ocular melanoma patients with metastatic disease have hepatic involvement at some point in their disease.

Why does ocular melanoma spread to the liver?

About 50% of patients diagnosed with ocular melanoma go on to develop metastatic disease. In 95% of cases, the liver is the first place metastases are discovered. This is because ocular melanoma spreads through the blood-stream as opposed to the lymphatic system, making the liver susceptible to metastasis.

How does uveal melanoma spread?

This means that the disease may be present in other parts of the body, but because OM is spread by the bloodstream and not the lymphatic system as with cutaneous melanoma, the ‘mets’ may be too small or too diffuse to be detected. The early metastatic disease can be detected, the more options are generally available.

What is the prognosis for melanoma that has spread to the liver?

Background: Liver metastasis develops in approximately two-thirds of patients with recurrent uveal melanoma. Despite therapy, the median survival of those with liver metastasis is 5 to 7 months.

Can you survive liver metastases?

Prognosis for liver metastases tends to be poor, with a roughly 11% survival rate for 5 years. Treatments can help reduce the symptoms and shrink the tumor, but typically, there is no cure for liver metastases. Liver cancer prevention & risk factors.

How fast does eye melanoma spread?

There is no known cause, though incidence is highest among people with lighter skin and blue eyes. Approximately 50% of patients with OM will develop metastases by 10 to 15 years after diagnosis (a small percentage of people will develop metastases even later i.e. 20-25 years after their initial diagnosis).

What are the different risk factors for melanoma?

Different cancers have different risk factors. Some risk factors, like smoking and excess sun exposure, can be changed. Others, like your age or family history, can’t be changed. Having a risk factor, or even many risk factors, does not mean that you will get melanoma. Many people with risk factors never get melanoma.

Can you change one of the risk factors for liver cancer?

Some risk factors, like smoking, can be changed. Others, like a person’s age or family history, can’t be changed. But having a risk factor, or even several risk factors, does not mean that you will get the disease.

How does liver cirrhosis lead to liver cancer?

Alcohol abuse is a leading cause of cirrhosis in the US, which in turn is linked with an increased risk of liver cancer. Smoking increases the risk of liver cancer. Former smokers have a lower risk than current smokers, but both groups have a higher risk than those who never smoked.

What is the risk of developing melanoma in congenital nevi?

The lifetime risk of melanoma developing in congenital melanocytic nevi is estimated to be between 0 and 5%, depending on the size of the nevus. People with very large congenital nevi have a higher risk, while the risk is lower for those with small nevi.