A civilization is often defined as a complex culture with five characteristics: (1) advanced cities, (2) specialized workers, (3) complex institutions, (4) record keeping, and (5) advanced technology.
These include: (1) large population centers; (2) monumental architecture and unique art styles; (3) shared communication strategies; (4) systems for administering territories; (5) a complex division of labor; and (6) the division of people into social and economic classes.
If you look back at the time when humans first decided to give up their nomadic, hunter-gatherer lifestyle in favor of settling down at one place, six distinct cradles of civilization can be clearly identified: Egypt, Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq and Iran), the Indus Valley (present-day Pakistan and Afghanistan).
There are 7 characteristics that define a civilization.Stable food supply – Social structure.System of government – Religious system.Highly developed – Advances in technology.Written language.
Three important factors in the rise of civilizations are domestication, sedentism, and agriculture. All three of these factors encourage the rise of civilizations because they are ways for a group of people to “settle down” and live in an area.
Only four ancient civilizations—Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus valley, and China—provided the basis for continuous cultural developments in the same location.
We live in the most recent period, the Quaternary, which is then broken down into two epochs: the current Holocene, and the previous Pleistocene, which ended 11,700 years ago.
The Mongol Empire
Today, there are no empires, at least not officially. But that could soon change if the United States — or even China — embraces its imperial destiny. Officially, there are no empires now, only 190-plus nation-states. Yet the ghosts of empires past continue to stalk the Earth.
Given this definition, all empires are civilisations, but not all civilisations are empires. The data is drawn from two studies on the growth and decline of empires (for and 600BC-600), and an informal, crowd-sourced survey of ancient civilisations (which I have amended).
Arts and Architecture.Writings In Ancient Egypt.Social Classes. Ancient Egyptians had a complex social hierarchy that divided each family into social classes that they were given by birth . Public Works.Cities. Pyramids, Nile river, Stone and brick. Organized Government. Complex Religion. Job Specialization.
Ancient Egypt was the world’s longest continuous civilization that brought us pyramids, papyrus, mummies, and pharaohs. Egyptians were innovators responsible for some of history’s greatest creations and infamous characters that are still discussed and debated today.