# What is the difference in tautology contradiction and contingency?

## What is the difference in tautology contradiction and contingency?

If the proposition is true in every row of the table, it’s a tautology. If it is false in every row, it’s a contradiction. And if the proposition is neither a tautology nor a contradiction—that is, if there is at least one row where it’s true and at least one row where it’s false—then the proposition is a contingency.

## What is a tautology and contradiction?

A tautology is a formula which is “always true” — that is, it is true for every assignment of truth values to its simple components. You can think of a tautology as a rule of logic. The opposite of a tautology is a contradiction, a formula which is “always false”.

What is tautology and contradiction with example?

Tautologies and Contradiction A proposition P is a tautology if it is true under all circumstances. It means it contains the only T in the final column of its truth table. Example: Prove that the statement (p⟶q) ↔(∼q⟶∼p) is a tautology.

What is contingency statement?

Contingent Statement a statement which could logically be either true or false. All true statements which are not necessarily true (logically could not be other than true) are contingently true. Their truth is said to be contingent upon (depends on) the facts concerning the way the world is.

### What is an example of tautology?

Tautology is the use of different words to say the same thing twice in the same statement. ‘The money should be adequate enough’ is an example of tautology.

### What is an example of contradiction?

A contradiction is a situation or ideas in opposition to one another. Examples of a contradiction in terms include, “the gentle torturer,” “the towering midget,” or “a snowy summer’s day.” A person can also express a contradiction, like the person who professes atheism, yet goes to church every Sunday.

What is a contingency plan example?

Contingency plans are often devised by governments or businesses. For example, suppose many employees of a company are traveling together on an aircraft which crashes, killing all aboard. The company could be severely strained or even ruined by such a loss.

What is contingency plans example?

#### What is an example of a contingency cost?

For example, if the project team feels they need a 10% contingency reserve for a \$1,800,000 project, they would add \$180,000 (10% of \$1,800,000) to the cost of the project – for a total project cost of \$1,980,000. To address this, they could budget a 3% contingency for labor but 10% for materials.

#### Which is a contradiction, a tautology or a contingency?

The proposition (~ (A ∨ B) • B) is a contradiction, because it is false in every row. (There are no ones in its column of the table.) The proposition ((A • B) ∨ C) is a contingency, because it is true in some rows and false in others. The proposition (B ⊃ (B ∨ C)) is a tautology, because it is true in every row.

When is a compound proposition called a tautology?

A compound proposition is called tautology if and only if it is true for all possible truth values of its propositional variables. It contains only T (Truth) in last column of its truth table. A compound proposition is called contradiction if and only if it is false for all possible truth values of its propositional variables.

When is a compound proposition called a contingency?

A compound proposition is called contingency if and only if it is neither a tautology nor a contradiction. It contains both T (True) and F (False) in last column of its truth table.

## What is the truth table for a contradiction?

A proposition that is always false is called a contradiction. The truth table for a tautology has “T” in every row. The truth table for a contradiction has “F” in every row. A proposition that is neither a tautology nor a contradiction is