What is the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis?
Marchand introduced the term “atherosclerosis” describing the association of fatty degeneration and vessel stiffening. This process affects medium and large-sized arteries and is characterized by patchy intramural thickening of the subintima that encroaches on the arterial lumen.
How does atherosclerosis explain pathogenesis atherosclerosis?
Triglycerides, cholesterol and lipoproteins are implicated in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease, especially atherosclerosis (9,10). Reduced concentrations of high density lipoprotein (HDL) and increased triglycerides have been shown to be responsible for the genesis of atherosclerotic lesions (17).
What is the first step in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis?
Lipid retention is the first step in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis which is followed by chronic inflammation at susceptible sites in the walls of the major arteries lead to fatty streaks, which then progress to fibroatheromas which are fibrous in nature (Table 1) [5,6].
What are the mechanisms of atherosclerosis?
The molecular mechanisms of atherosclerosis is a complex web of cellular events that is only gradually becoming explained. These mechanisms involve lipid metabolism, inflammatory signaling, and interaction with the complex vascular system involved in thrombosis.
What are the four stages of atherosclerosis?
Atherosclerosis is the pathologic process by which cholesterol and calcium plaque accumulate within the arterial wall….The working theory includes four steps:
- Endothelial cell injury.
- Lipoprotein deposition.
- Inflammatory reaction.
- Smooth muscle cell cap formation.
What is the composition of atherosclerosis?
These atherosclerotic plaques are typically described as containing a large lipid core representing more than half of the plaque volume, a thin fibrous cap (less than 65╬╝m) and a heavy infiltrate of inflammatory cells (macrophages and lymphocytes).
What are the 3 components of atherosclerotic plaque?
The main components of atherosclerotic plaques are:
- fibrous elements such as connective tissue, extra-cellular matrix, including collagen, proteoglycans, and fibronectin elastic fibers;
- lipids such as crystalline cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, and phospholipids;
How is the pathogenesis of penicilliosis poorly studied?
The pathogenesis of penicilliosis has been poorly studied. Though the disease can be localized, it is more likely to be disseminated in both normal and immunocompromised hosts. Infection is thought to occur through inhalation of the conidia or through cutaneous inoculation.
What’s the difference between penicilliosis and Talaromycosis?
Talaromycosis (formerly Penicilliosis) Definition. Talaromycosis is an infection caused by the fungus Talaromyces marneffei. The name of the fungus and the name of the infection have changed. T. marneffei used to be called Penicillium marneffei, and talaromycosis used to be called penicilliosis.
When does penicilliosis occur in a AIDS patient?
Penicilliosis, disseminated infection with the fungus Penicillium marneffei, has become an important opportunistic infection in AIDS patients in southeast Asia (especially northern Thailand) and southern China. The disease usually occurs when CD4 counts fall below 50 cells/mm 3 .
Which is a major component of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis?
The major components of atherosclerotic plaque, ultimately responsible for clinical effects, are deposited lipids–mostly cholesteryl esters and cholesterol, derived largely from the lower-density lipoproteins of the blood–and proliferated, modified arterial smooth muscle cells with their synthesiz …